One of humanity’s greatest concerns is related to the end of the world. For centuries the human race has tried to decipher the date and time in which the event that would end the life of human beings and everything that inhabits the Earth would take place. However, for the moment everything has remained in theories and speculations of some scientists.
Likewise, many interested in this subject have set themselves the task of investigating and finding clues that allow us to understand not only the exact date, but also how said event would occur. The investigation has been so much that there are several books that try to narrate possible ways in which life would end.
Some of the possible endings of the world that have been mentioned so much are the following:
– Nuclear war:
For many years it has been clarified that conflicts between countries open the possibility of a nuclear war taking place and consequently human life ending. This concern comes after society was able to experience and observe the consequences of a bomb of this type during the Second World War.
Now, with the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, it has been mentioned that there are possibilities that these two nations end up unleashing a war of this type. Especially since Russia has some 6,375 nuclear warheads and the United States, which supports the Ukrainians, has 5,800 of them.
On this Carl Sagan indicated that what would happen is that if there is a nuclear war in which more than 10,000 megatons are exploded, what would happen is that between 30 and 60% of the northern hemisphere would remain in total darkness for a few days. That is to say, with an explosion there would be great clouds of dust, ash and fires. This would cause a nuclear winter in which it is estimated that the Earth’s temperature would drop to eight degrees in a few hours.
The serious thing about this situation is that in a nuclear winter there would be no passage of sunlight and therefore the plants would not be able to perform their functions and would die. In addition, with 10,000 megatons, up to 50% of the ozone layer would be destroyed, in this way, ultraviolet radiation would kill basically all living beings. In the same way, there would be radioactive rain that would not only contaminate, but with it there would be a great chance of dying in the first hours.
On the other hand, at the moment nine nations have nuclear bombs, which are the United States, Russia, China, France, England, India, Pakistan, North Korea and Israel.
Now, Carl Sagan clarified that with his calculations he concluded that there are four countries in which there are great possibilities of the outbreak of a nuclear war: Russia, France, England and the United States. For this reason, he mentioned that the northern hemisphere would be affected.
– Solar storms:
Science has also mentioned the possibility of a solar storm. In this the satellites, the communications would be affected, there would be power cuts and more. The Earth has already experienced a solar storm before, so the consequences of such an event are known.
The first storm that occurred was called the Carrington event, which was in 1859 in Colombia and which has been considered the strongest on record. However, it has been said from science that there is the possibility of a much stronger one that affects life on Earth.
At that time, the northern lights or the Carrington event damaged the communications systems, so it is expected that if it happens again it would be serious for humanity due to its dependence on technology. The above, especially with the issue of food conservation. There would also be panic, violence and it would take time to recover all the lost technology.
On the other hand, there has been talk of the possibility of a solar storm shortly, because due to global warming, the Sun has affected the temperature. In addition, scientists have indicated that there would be a 2% chance that a large solar storm will occur due to the strong incidence that the Sun is having on Earth recently. However, there is no way of knowing a date when it might happen.
– The deadly virus and global warming
Another of the great theories that has been made about the end of life on Earth is related to some disease that is so lethal that there is no cure and consequently the human race ends. The coronavirus pandemic showed society that a disease can cause a lot of damage, not only in terms of health, but also economic, social, political, cultural and more. Fortunately, however, progress in science has been such that in a short time several vaccines were developed that have allowed people to be protected from this virus.
Previously, the world also saw how the Spanish flu in 1918 left between 50 and 100 million dead and some 500,000,000 people were infected. Two other examples are the black plague or all the diseases that came to America after the conquest, which ended the lives of 80% of the indigenous people.
So far, scientists have shown great concern about the nipah virus, which can be present in humans and animals. In addition, it has a 70% mortality rate. However, one issue that does not make this virus worrying is that it is not spread from human to human. However, if it mutates, its mortality could increase.
On this subject, experts have mentioned that intensive livestock farming leads to deforestation and this increases not only the destruction of tropical forests, but also the closeness with animals (with which human beings have had no or almost no contact) and the contagion of zoonoses. In other words, deforestation increases the possibility that humans will catch new diseases and consequently a pandemic will occur.
In addition, there has also been talk that the increase in temperature could cause frozen diseases to come to light. The issue of the melting that is happening in Antarctica or in some glaciers in Tibet has generated concern. Until recently, biologists thought that viruses that were frozen, that were 50,000 or 200,000 years old, would not generate danger because they would be inactive. However, they discovered in an experiment that a frozen virus, given the right conditions, could affect society.
For more than 30 years, strange formations in the layers of the Earth and fossils of species have been known. With this, it was found that there is a pattern and that it could be related to mass extinctions of species from time to time by comets. As proof, it has been emphasized that a material known as iridium has been found in the layers of the Earth, which is a rare chemical element on Earth, but abundant in comets.
With the above, it was concluded that comets have arrived on Earth, which, as is known, often impact other planets and cause disasters, such as the extinction of the dinosaurs. Likewise, there are also asteroids that would represent a danger due to the possibility that they may collide with the Earth.