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Who did Marina Tsvetaeva really raise: the unknown truth about her beloved son Mura

Tsvetaeva impudently interfered in the personal life of her grown-up son

Tsvetaeva impudently interfered in the personal life of her grown-up son

“I often think about the son of Marina Tsvetaeva. What is it that she raised?” Said one popular TV presenter. These words are relevant to this day. With Marina Ivanovna herself, everything more or less settled down, few people will be surprised by the revelations from her diaries. But now her children have come to the fore. Dmitry Bykov’s “June” is mainly about Tsvetaeva’s daughter, Ariadna Efron, while Sergei Belkov’s relatively recent documentary novel “Paris Boys in Stalin’s Moscow” tells about Georgy Efron, the son of Marina Ivanovna.

If everything is clear with Ariadne and it is difficult to disagree with Bykov, who considers Tsvetaeva’s daughter the best woman of the twentieth century, then it is more difficult with George. Until now, many call him an egoist, guilty of the death of his mother, and almost a traitor.

What Marina Ivanovna raised is described in Belyakov’s book. The novel can hardly be called exciting or innovative: it is a rather boring and crumpled compilation of previously published ones. But nevertheless, the author manages to put together the scattered pieces and create an unbiased portrait of Georgy Efron.

The spitting image of Marin Tsvetaev

Georgy Efron (Mur) was born in the Czech Republic, at the very height of Tsvetaeva’s work on the poem “The Pied Piper”. Emigration gossiped that Moore was the son of Tsvetaeva’s lover Konstantin Radzevich, Tsvetaeva herself said that she “calculated” everything exactly and her husband Sergei Efron was the father. However, the issue of paternity was unimportant: in fact, George was primarily her son and she saw herself in him. “There is nothing of mine in him, he is the spitting image of Marin Tsvetaev,” Sergei Efron wrote.

Perhaps this circumstance, and even in conjunction with the fact that Marina Ivanovna, of course, felt guilty for the death of her daughter Irina, resulted in an inadequate attitude towards her son. She fell in love with him, fed him like a goose for Christmas and actively inspired that he was the main one, and the rest were servants.

The episode that Tatyana Tolstaya likes to retell is indicative.

“Moore, move away, you are blocking the sun for me,” a woman relaxing on the beach asked her son Tsvetaeva.

A harmless request caused an immediate scandal:

– How can you say that! – soared Marina Ivanovna. – He is the sun!

The people around marveled and gossiped.

“She adored him like a woman, like a carnally,” states the daughter of the philosopher Karsavin in letters published recently in the journal Aleksandrovskaya Sloboda.

The letters contain many unsightly details about Moore’s upbringing. In particular, about how Tsvetaeva made her daughter Alya a servant of her little brother, did not allow her to go to school and mind her own business. How the brother, in response, snitched on his sister and provoked his mother to slap Alya in the face.

At the same time, Karsavina notes, she was sincerely sorry for the boy.

George Efron

George Efron

“She didn’t let Moore move away from her even ten steps away, as if if he moved away from her, some part of his own body came off … He really wanted to play with the children, and he walked towards them, carried his toys. But now Marina Ivanovna’s cry was heard: “Moore, don’t you dare give your toys to other people’s children, don’t you dare go so far, go sit here!” He dutifully returned… He was very happy if any of the adults paid attention to him and agreed to play with him or just talk with him.

As noted in Belyakov’s novel, with the same impudence, Tsvetaeva interfered in the personal life of her grown-up son, indicating which girl he should be friends with and which not.

Little Gargantua

The issue of food intake was also key in the upbringing of the child. Marina Ivanovna fed her son, and often doing it in front of everyone. According to Karsavina, Alya held the child so that he would not escape, the mother shoved porridge into him, and Moore swallowed with disgust. It is not surprising that at three years old he looked six or seven years old, and at six he looked twelve. Tsvetaeva herself considered her son handsome, compared with Napoleon and was proud that at four and a half years old he weighed thirty-two kilograms.

The surrounding mothers did not share the pride. Someone called Moore a monster behind his back, and someone recalled with horror that, looking into the stroller of a one-year-old child, he saw not a child at all, but a “sleek man” with “blue, cold, evil eyes.”

Photographs from elementary school show that Moore was twice the size of his classmates. But Dmitry Bykov, who understandably sympathizes with Moore, came up with a more poetic definition for him: “He was a real Gargantua.”

It is probably not surprising that over time, the issue of food absorption will begin to occupy a key place in Efron’s diaries. “All I want is to eat and read Chekhov,” notes the matured Moore.

“From such an upbringing, he grew up to be a perfect egoist, a little monster of selfishness and intoxication with himself,” writes Karsavina. She is not alone in her judgments.

When her son was 14, Tsvetaeva moved to the Soviet Union, where, as Moore himself writes, he began a difficult life.

In the novel, Belyakov is surprised by the episodes of how the mother, who herself survives from penny to penny, gives him money from meager fees so that her son buys himself another expensive fountain pen. The girl who loves him steals bread from the factory for Moore, and he does not even feel grateful. In the evacuation, he himself comes across for theft, but does not feel remorse. And besides, he avoids working prospects in every possible way.

“A year before Tsvetaeva’s death, Moore wrote in his diary: “Now I have decided to take a firm stand on the position of egoism.” So he was not only a “hard” egoist, but also a principled one,” the author states.

“Marina Ivanovna did the right thing by leaving”

The history of world literature is full of stories about overbearing parents and overbearing children. One of the latest on this topic is the play “Beauty from Linen” based on the play by McDonagh. At the end of the play, the daughter, tortured by her mother, kills her, but she herself becomes the incarnation of her mother.

Something similar happened to George. He did not like that he was perceived as the son of Marina Tsvetaeva. He was a huge tall man, and his mother often took him by the hand, like a child. He was fed up with her concern. He was bored walking with Tsvetaeva, going to visit her friends and acquaintances, where he felt like a “wolf on a lasso”.

They constantly quarreled, he repeatedly stated that one of them would be carried forward with their feet. And then, when everything happened, he was relieved and from that he repeated the phrase shocking those around him: “Marina Ivanovna did the right thing by leaving.”

Many blamed him for his mother’s death. But what is most surprising is that the Aseevs were also condemned. But it was to them that Tsvetaeva bequeathed her son. Aseevs were rich and childless, the head of the family openly admired the poems of Marina Ivanovna. She expected that they would accept Moore as their child.

In spite of everything, they did not even accept Tsvetaeva’s manuscripts, and Georgy himself was allowed to stay with them for only ten days. Oksana, Aseev’s wife, was infuriated by Moore’s everyday habits: “walks around the house in his shorts, a man is a man,” she called a fascist, condemning her for the death of her mother. And she did not treat Marina Ivanovna herself with respect:

“Imagine, her son tumbles into us …, you see, she bequeathed him to Aseev and to us, the Sinyakov sisters! She did a favor! aunts, let them deal with him there.

According to researchers, Marina Ivanovna passed away in order to negotiate with the fate of her son

According to researchers, Marina Ivanovna passed away in order to negotiate with the fate of her son

After the death of Marina Ivanovna

“Until the very death of my mother, I was hostile to the family, to the concept of the family. It seemed to me that the family hindered my development and ascent, but in fact it was not a brake, but an engine. And now I vainly regret, mourn for the house, comfort, loved ones, and I see how badly I was mistaken, ”wrote Georgy Efron.

The death of Tsvetaeva made him grow up and reconsider a lot.

As Irma Kudrova said, reading his correspondence with his sister, you understand that he really loved Marina Ivanovna. He remembers her, looking at how Akhmatova was treated in Tashkent and how Akhmatova accepted gifts. George writes to his sister that his mother would never allow herself such a thing.

In Belyakov’s novel, there is a lot of evidence of how George’s views changed with the death of his mother. But perhaps the most interesting pages of the book are the last ones.

In March 1925, when Moore was a month old, Tsvetaeva wrote in her draft notebook: “Boys need to be pampered, they may have to go to war.” At the very beginning of her son’s life, she seemed to have a premonition of how and where he would die, and this premonition, perhaps, dictated everything that happened to them.

“If she loved her son, she would not have committed suicide,” is the most popular reproach against Tsvetaeva.

But Belyakov cites an interesting letter in which one of the last conversations of the poetess during the evacuation is reproduced. Marina Ivanovna told women she knew that Moore would soon be drafted into the army, but she would not bear it and would not survive when she received “the last terrible envelope inscribed in someone else’s handwriting …”

Perhaps, with her departure, she wanted to somehow agree with fate.

“Your son died a hero”

Being sure that all the bombs in the world were aimed precisely at her Mura, Tsvetaeva forbade her son to put out incendiary bombs on the roof. After her death, he himself tried with all his might to avoid mobilization, and when he got to the front, he bombarded his relatives with terrible letters, in which he asked to get him out. Of course, no one was even going to do this, but Moore’s panicked letters gave rise to various legends about Tsvetaeva’s son. According to one of the legends, he ended up in a penal battalion, according to another, a sergeant shot him right in the barracks. There were rumors that he had surrendered to the Nazis and fled abroad.

The funeral for George never came. He was not on the list of the dead.

“Thirty years this slander hung over our family,” said Mura’s sister, Ariadne Efron.

Thanks to the efforts of Ariadne, the fate of Georgy Efron was restored

Ariadna found Lieutenant Colonel Stanislav Gribanov, and he already found the division, regiment, battalion and company in which Moore served. George was remembered by his company commander, Hashim Mammad Ali-ogly Seyidov.

Suddenly, the commander said something that few expected to hear.

“Efron was modest, he spoke clearly and clearly, he carried out orders quickly and accurately, he was very combative. He was fearless in battle,” said Seyidov.

At the front, Moore has changed. The panic has gone. But then came determination and courage. He was appointed as a submachine gunner in a rifle battalion. “I am quite calm about the prospect of going on the attack with a machine gun, although I have not had to deal with either machine guns or attacks,” he wrote to his aunt in June 1944.

His comrades nicknamed him Moskvich and Chistekha: Moore never learned to dig trenches and did not shine with physical fitness. But what was appreciated at the front was that he was not a coward.

The last battle of George Efron happened in July 1944 for the village of Druika. Moore was wounded in battle, and on the way to the medical battalion, a truck with the wounded was attacked by a German attack aircraft.

“Efron Georgy Sergeevich fought courageously and gave his young life <...> please tell Efron’s mother that we are proud, as she raised the Hero’s son,” wrote Commander Seyidov…

“I’m not afraid for myself, I have a lot of good ahead”

Researcher Irma Kudrova, when asked by TV presenters who Marina Tsvetaeva raised, answered as follows:

– She brought up a brilliantly educated boy who would grow up to be a brilliant prose writer.

Before being drafted, Moore briefly studied at the Literary Institute. He wanted to promote French culture in Russia and Russian culture in France. He took only one book with him to the front – a collection of poems and prose by Stefan Mallarme and was very afraid that the book would be stolen. Although who needed a book in French…

Unlike his mother, who predicted his imminent death, he was sure that he would live a long and happy life:

“I don’t worry about myself – I have a lot, a lot of time ahead of me … I still firmly believe that someday there will be, there will be good days for me, unforgettable moments, friendship, love, a lot of valuable and unforgettable!”, – he wrote in his diaries.

At the time of his death, Georgy Efron was 19 years old. In the seventies, an essay on Moore’s last days was published in the Neman magazine. After reading it, the villagers erected a monument on the grave of George Efron. Is it a coincidence that the place of burial “Marina Tsvetaeva” turned out to be the same supposed place as that of her mother.

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