Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, with a significant proportion being myocardial infarction. Pathology is associated with the necrosis of a section of the heart muscle (myocardium), which develops against the background of an acute circulatory disorder. The heart is very sensitive to a lack of oxygen, therefore, within half an hour after the cessation of blood supply, death of myocardial cells is observed. How to maintain heart health and prevent the development of a heart attack – Pravda.Ru told readers gynecologist-endocrinologist, miscarriage specialist, hemostasiologist Olga Kaplina.
What increases the risk of myocardial infarction?
Every year we observe an increase in mortality and complications from myocardial infarction and we can state with alarm that the life-threatening condition has become younger. Today, the disease is increasingly diagnosed in patients aged 25-30 years.
The following contribute to the development of a heart attack:
- chronic stress;
- smoking, including passive;
- alcohol consumption;
- excess body weight;
- high cholesterol in the blood;
The danger is uncontrolled arterial hypertension, when patients forget to take the medicine for high blood pressure on time or completely ignore the doctor’s prescription.
But a mobile lifestyle, the rejection of bad habits, a diet rich in vegetables and fish, these risks are reduced.
How are myocardial infarction and blood clotting related?
A heart attack is a consequence of thrombosis of a branch of the coronary artery, which leads to disruption of the blood supply to the heart muscle. Blockage of the vessel by a blood clot, in turn, provokes atherosclerosis with the formation of cholesterol plaques. There are familial forms of atherosclerosis that cause early heart attacks, regardless of lifestyle.
The formation of blood clots is also facilitated by the use of narcotic substances and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an autoimmune disease that inhibits natural antithrombotic mechanisms. Antiphospholipid syndrome should be suspected in all young patients who have had a heart attack, including pregnant women.
What measures to prevent myocardial infarction are considered the most effective?
The main methods of prevention:
- active lifestyle;
- quitting smoking and alcohol;
- normalization of weight;
- full sleep – at least 8-9 hours;
- balanced diet.
Olga Kaplina recommends
- refuse fast food;
- limit salt and red meat in the diet;
- Include vegetables at every meal – they should take up about half the plate.
To control the level of glucose and cholesterol in the blood, it is important to take tests for HDL and LDL.
With arterial hypertension, drugs must be taken regularly, and not only when the pressure rises.
Statins can help reduce your risk of heart attack if you have high cholesterol. These are drugs that slow down the synthesis of bad cholesterol. To prevent a second heart attack, statins and aspirin can be prescribed for life.
How not to miss a heart attack
In most cases, myocardial infarction has characteristic symptoms:
- chest pain lasting more than 20 minutes;
- pale skin;
- cold sweat.
There is also a painless form of a heart attack, which leads to a delayed request for emergency help. Therefore, do not neglect annual examinations and ignore alarming symptoms.
To identify risk factors, it is important to annually take not only a clinical, but also a biochemical blood test. The lipidogram plays a key role in it, which allows you to determine the percentage of “bad” cholesterol. Is the level of “bad” cholesterol increased? We do ultrasound of the brachiocephalic and carotid arteries to find out how affected they are by atherosclerotic formations. And, of course, do not forget about the ECG.
How to support heart function during pregnancy?
A woman’s heart literally works for two during this wonderful period, and pregnancy itself is considered a risk factor for high blood pressure. To monitor the work of the heart, the expectant mother is sent for at least two electrocardiograms – at 12 and 28 weeks. It is imperative to control the pressure, so from the first weeks of pregnancy it is better to get a home tonometer. A pregnant woman should measure her blood pressure daily, especially after 20 weeks.
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