Complete blood count in a child: transcripts

The results of a blood test can tell a lot about the health of the child, his predisposition to certain diseases, the effectiveness of treatment. Therefore, a general blood test in children is taken both for preventive purposes and during treatment. Blood is taken from the finger of the hand, usually in the morning on an empty stomach, the procedure does not take much time and is not too painful.

What indicators allow you to determine the general blood test in children?

A complete blood count is a very informative indicator for a doctor. This, at first glance, a simple study gives an idea of ​​the number, size and shape of red blood cells, the content of hemoglobin in them. The analysis also shows the ratio of the volume of blood plasma and formed elements, allows you to determine the leukocyte formula, the number of platelets and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. All this very eloquently speaks about the state of health of the patient. Only a doctor can decipher and correctly interpret blood test data.

However, you still need to have a general idea of ​​​​the contents of the results sheet.

  • Red blood cells (RBC) – the most numerous formed elements of blood containing hemoglobin.
  • Hemoglobin (Hb) – the main component of erythrocytes (red blood cells). This is a complex protein, its main function is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, as well as to remove carbon dioxide from the body and regulate the acid-base balance.
  • Average volume (CV) – one of the erythrocyte indices (along with MCH and MCHC). It is a quantitative assessment of the volume of red blood cells. The indicator is relative.
  • Color indicator of blood (MSN, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin) – the content of hemoglobin in one erythrocyte. Similar to MCHC (Mean Cell Hemoglobin) – the average concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells.
  • Reticulocytes (RTC) – young erythrocytes. Their excess number shows an increased need for the formation of new red blood cells, caused by blood loss or disease.
  • Platelets (PLT) – non-nuclear colorless blood cells of a spherical shape. They are responsible for blood clotting and play an important role in the healing of damaged tissues.
  • Thrombocrit (PCT) – an indicator that characterizes the percentage of platelet mass in the blood volume. A very important criterion for assessing the risk of bleeding and thrombosis.
  • ESR (ESR) – this is the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, is an important indicator of the course of the disease.
  • Leukocytes (WBC) – a group of cells called white blood cells. They are characterized by the presence of a nucleus and the absence of color. The role of white blood cells is to protect the body from germs, bacteria, viruses and foreign cells.
  • Leukocyte formula – represents the percentage of different forms of leukocytes in the blood serum. The indicator is determined by counting leukocytes in a stained blood smear under a microscope.
  • Segmented neutrophils, or neutrophilic leukocytes, – the most numerous group of leukocytes. Their main task is the destruction of pathogenic bacteria. Stab neutrophils are also isolated. These are young neutrophils with a rod-shaped solid nucleus. As for neutrophilic myelocytes, these are more mature cells, including pink-colored protoplasm. The youngest neutrophils are called metamyelocytes. They appear in the blood in the presence of an inflammatory process.
  • Eosinophils (EOS) – cells contained in the blood, performing a protective function and being an integral part of the leukocyte formula.
  • Basophils (BAS) This is the smallest group of leukocytes. An increase in the number of basophils occurs with allergic conditions, infections, diseases of the blood system, and poisoning.
  • LYM lymphocytes – formed elements of the blood, which are part of the immune system. They circulate in the blood and tissues and provide protection against foreign agents entering the body.
  • Monocytes (MON) – large leukocytes responsible for cleaning the blood from physical agents and foreign cells. Monocytes can absorb both whole microorganisms and their fragments. If the number of monocytes in the blood is increased, then this may indicate the presence of an infection in the body.

It is interesting

It is believed that about 1000 people with blue blood live on the planet, they are called kyanetics. The color of the blood is due to the fact that instead of iron it contains copper. Blue-blooded children are born to ordinary parents. Such blood is less susceptible to infection and has greater coagulability, even serious injuries do not cause severe bleeding. Therefore, the ancient knights of the “blue bloods” aroused fear and reverence among their relatives. Such blood was considered a sign of the chosen ones.

Normal indicators for a general blood test in a child

The norm of indicators of various kinds in children depends on age, since in connection with the growth of the child and the formation of the body, the composition of the blood changes. Pediatricians distinguish the following age groups: 1 day, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, 1-6 years, 7-12 years, 13-15 years. The indicators of the norm of a general blood test for children of these age groups are as follows.

Normal indicators for a general blood test in a child

Normal indicators for a general blood test in a child

What can indicate deviations of the results from the norm?

If certain indicators of the general blood test are outside the normal range, then this is a signal for further diagnosis and treatment. As a rule, deviations from the norm indicate the following.

  • red blood cells in a reduced amount may indicate a deficiency of iron, albumin and various vitamins. An increase in the number of red blood cells indicates the presence of congenital heart defects, chronic diseases, various kinds of erythrocytosis.
  • Elevated hemoglobin may indicate blood diseases, its thickening, as well as heart problems, including defects. This pattern can also be observed with dehydration and constipation. What is interesting: a slight increase in hemoglobin is characteristic of children from high mountain regions. But low hemoglobin usually occurs at various stages of anemia.
  • platelets in an increased amount they talk about inflammatory processes, possible tuberculosis, osteomyelitis. Their low content is observed in premature babies and in hemolytic disease of newborns.
  • Leukocytes in excessive amounts can indicate congenital leukemia, infectious diseases, as well as eating disorders, stress and excessive exercise, and in a reduced amount – radiation sickness, acute leukemia, bone marrow damage, allergic reactions, infectious diseases (rubella, chickenpox, etc.), as well as a breakdown, exhaustion of the child, low blood pressure.
  • enlarged ESR talks about acute and chronic diseases of inflammatory origin, about anemia, kidney diseases. But low ESR is observed with a lack of nutrition and dystrophy.
  • Neutrophils in a reduced amount indicate infectious diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Also, this picture is typical for radiation exposure, systemic lupus erythematosus, lack of body weight. With an increase in neutrophils, doctors diagnose neutrophilia. It occurs with insect bites, oncological diseases of the blood, various inflammatory reactions.
  • Monocytes exceed the norm in the blood with viral infections, tuberculosis, heart disease and malignant tumors. The absence of monocytes or their small number indicates inhibition of bone marrow function, leukemia, and radiation sickness.
  • Eosinophils in an increased amount are present in the blood with allergies, parasitic diseases, a number of skin diseases, for example, with dermatitis and skin lichen. A decrease in eosinophils indicates acute bacterial infections, as well as stress and neurosis.
  • Basophils exceed the norm in leukemia, hypothyroidism, anemia, chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as in ENT diseases, such as sinusitis. A decrease in the number of basophils is characteristic of acute infectious conditions, an excess of thyroid hormones, stress, and Cushing’s disease.

As you can see, a complete blood count is necessary to diagnose a wide range of pathologies – from allergies to chronic inflammatory and even oncological diseases. Therefore, it is so important to monitor the indicators of a blood test, especially when it comes to the state of a fragile child’s body.

Where can I do a general blood test for a child?

Blood tests for children are taken both in public clinics and in private medical centers. To avoid queues, waiting for a referral from the local pediatrician for analysis, and then the results of the analysis, it is better to contact a private clinic. This will save time and will not become stressful for little patients. In addition, there is no doubt that the result of the analysis will be lost or delayed.

How to decipher a child’s blood test

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