Negative day for ATXwhich begins the session on Monday, November 21 with slight decreases in the 0.39%until the 3,212.87 points, after opening. Compared to previous days, the ATX the direction of the previous data changes, in which a rise of 0.37% was recorded, showing that it is unable to consolidate a recently defined trend.
In relation to the profitability of the last seven days, the ATX marks an ascent from 0.22%; On the other hand, in the last year it still maintains a decrease of 14.88%. The ATX a 20.82% below its maximum this year (4,057.59 points) and a 21.36% above its minimum valuation so far this year (2,647.43 points).
What is a stock index and what is it for?
a stock index is an indicator that shows how the price of a given set of assets changesso it takes data from different companies or sectors of a fragment of the market.
These indicators are used mainly by the stock markets of each country and each of them can be integrated by firms with specific requirements such as having a similar market capitalization or belonging to the same industry, in addition, there are some indices that only consider a handful of shares to determine their value or others that consider hundreds of shares.
Stock indices serve as indicator of confidence in the stock market, business confidence, the health of the national and global economy, and the performance of stock investments and shares of an entity. If investors are not confident, share prices will tend to fall.
They also work to measure the performance of an asset manager and allow investors to make a comparison between profitability and risk; measure the opportunities of a financial asset or create portfolios.
These types of indicators began to be used at the end of the 19th century after the journalist Charles H. Dow. To carefully analyze how the shares of companies tended to rise or fall together in price, he created two indices: one that contained the 20 largest railway companies (as it was the most important industry at the time), as well as 12 shares of other types of businesses
Currently in humanity there are various indices and they can agglomerate based on their geographic location, the sectors, the size of the companies or the type of assetFor example, the US Nasdaq index is made up of the 100 largest companies mostly related to technology such as Apple (AAPL), Microsoft (MSFT), Amazon (AMZN), Facebook (FB), Alphabet (GOOG), Tesla (TSLA ), Nvidia (NVDA), PayPal (PYPL), Comcast (CMCSA), Adobe (ADBE).
How to read an index?
Each stock index has its own way of calculating, but the main component is the market capitalization of each company that integrates it. This is obtained by multiplying the daily value of the bond in the corresponding stock market by the total number of shares that are in the market.
Companies listed on the stock exchange are required to present a balance of its composition. Said report must be published every three or six months, as the case may be.
Reading a stock index also implies paying attention to its evolution over time. Current indices always open at a fixed value based on stock prices on their start date, but not everyone follows this method. Therefore, it can lead to failures.
If one index adds 500 points in one day, while another only adds 20, it might appear that the former performed better. But, if the first started the day at 30,000 points and the other at 300, it can be concluded that, in percentage terms, the gains for the second were higher.
What are the major stock indices?
Between the major US stock indices is the Dow Jones Industrial Average, better known as Dow Jones, made up of 30 companies. Also, the S&P 500, which comprises 500 of the largest companies on the New York Stock Exchange. Finally, one must not forget the Nasdaq 100which unites 100 of the largest non-financial firms.
On the other hand, the most important indices of Europe are the eurostoxx 50, which covers the 50 largest companies in the euro area. On the other hand, the DAX 30, the main German index containing the most prominent companies on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange; the FTSE 100 from the London Stock Exchange; the ACC 40 from the Paris Stock Exchange; and the IBEX 35from the Spanish stock market.
In the asian continentthe main stock indices are the nikkei 225, made up of the 225 largest companies on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. There is also the SSE Composite Index, is seen as the main one in China, made up of the most relevant companies on the Shanghai Stock Exchange. Similarly, it is worth mentioning the Hang Seung Index in Hong Kong and the KOSPI in South Korea.
Talking about Latin Americayou have the CPIwhich contains the 35 most consolidated firms on the Mexican Stock Exchange (BMV). At least a third of them are part of the patrimony of tycoon Carlos Slim.
Another is the Bovespa, made up of the 50 most important companies on the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange; the Merval from Argentina; the IPSA From Chile; the MSCI COLCAP from Colombia; the IBC de Caracas, made up of 6 companies from Venezuela.
Also, there are other types of global stock market indices such as the MSCI Latin Americawhich includes the 137 most important companies in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.
Similarly, there is MSCI World, which includes 1,600 companies from 23 developed countries; the MSCI Emerging Markets, made up of more than 800 companies from developing countries; and the S&P Global 100made up of the 100 most powerful multinational firms on the entire planet.